In 1922 Ellsworth Huntington recognised that the planets may well influence sunspots.
A study of sunspots suggests that their true periodicity is almost if not exactly identical with that of the orbital revolution of Jupiter, 11.8 years.
Other investigations show numerous remarkable coincidences between sunspots and the orbital revolution of the other planets, including especially Saturn and Mercury.
This seems to indicate that there is some truth in the hypothesis that sunspots and other related disturbances of the solar atmosphere owe their periodicity to the varying effects of the planets as they approach and recede from the sun in their eccentric orbits and as they combine or oppose their effects according to their relative positions.
Climatic Changes: Their Nature and Causes – 1922 – Ellsworth Huntington
Ellsworth Huntington concluded that any planetary influence on the sun was not caused by the “direct pull of gravitation” nor by the “tidal…
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